Here’s a guide to commonly used terminologies that will help beginners in their fitness journey and navigate their way in the gym.
This is one way to spend your “rest” day. This involves doing some low intensity activity like light walking or gentle yoga instead of staying on the couch all day long. This can help ease soreness and reduce muscle fatigue.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity. During aerobic exercise, your body uses oxygen for energy, which helps keep you moving for an extended period of time, like a long walk, run, or bike ride.
On the other hand, your anaerobic energy system is taxed when you do high-intensity workouts that skyrocket your heart rate. Anaerobic activities are short intervals of work used to improve speed and power. During these activities, your muscles break down glucose (aka sugar) to use as energy (because oxygen can’t deliver energy to your muscles fast enough). Examples of anaerobic exercise include heavy weight training, sprinting (running or cycling) and jumping.
As many reps as possible.
These classes are rooted in military-style training, so are typically pretty tough, and they often include a combination of cardio and strength exercises.
Exercising using one’s own body weight which helps develop muscular tone.
A sequence of exercises that is done with little or no rest in between sets. For a typical weightlifting circuit, perform one set of each exercise without resting, then rest 2-3 minutes before repeating the sequence.
Compound movements hit numerous muscle groups as you perform multi-joint movements through a range of motion to increase endurance and power. Examples of compound exercises are squats, deadlifts, lunges and bench press.
CrossFit is a fitness regimen developed by Greg Glassman which is a high-intensity fitness program incorporating elements from several sports and types of exercise. All CrossFit workouts are based on functional movements and these movements reflect the best aspects of gymnastics, weightlifting, running, rowing and more.
DOMS stands for delayed onset muscle soreness, which is the soreness you feel the day or two after a hard workout. This happens because when you’re working out you’re damaging muscle fibers (that’s a good thing!). The muscle then repairs and rebuilds and that’s how you get stronger. This soreness may last anywhere from 24 to 72 hours after your workout.
A technique to reach failure several times in one set. Completing repetitions at a heavier weight until you reach failure and immediately dropping the weight to continue your repetitions until you reach failure again, and again.
This is what you should be doing before exercise to raise your heart rate and body temperature in preparation for the workout. During this type of warm-up, you moving through stretches and light exercises without stopping (as opposed to a passive stretches, which are held in place, like you do in a cool-down). This helps increase mobility and range of motion so you can get deeper into exercises.
Giant sets are back-to-back-to-back-to-back exercises executed without rest.
High intensity interval training. These are often all-out bursts of activity followed by a rest period so you can catch your breath.
Hypertrophy is the growth of muscle and occurs because the existing muscle fibers get larger due to strength training. Mechanical loading, or weight lifting, triggers processes within the cells and muscle fibers that lead to protein synthesis and muscle growth.
By alternating bursts of light and intense activity, this popular training method helps maximize fat-burning potential while boosting metabolism and cardiovascular fitness levels.
Unlike compound movements, these targeted exercises hit just one muscle at a time. One quintessential example and is a bodybuilding favorite: the bicep curl.
Those strange-looking pieces of equipment in the corner of your gym can actually help you generate more power, build your strength, and boost your metabolism. You’ll even improve your balance and stability for better movement and fewer injuries.
Overtraining is the result of giving your body more work or stress than it can handle. Common symptoms of overtraining can include; increased resting heart rate, increased sensitivity to bright light, and the weights feeling ‘cold’ in your hands.
Negatives are a great way to add more intensity into your workouts and overload the muscle groups engaged in the exercises you are performing. Negatives are performed by controlling the tempo of the repetition and slowing down the lowering phase of the lift to an approximate 3-5 seconds rep count. This can help stress (and therefore strengthen) muscles in a different manner than simply lifting and lowering, helping the body break through existing strength plateaus.
The basic idea of linear periodization is to start with high volume and low intensity, and gradually (as your competition approaches) move towards low volume and high intensity.
One Rep Max:
The maximum amount of weight one can lift in a single repetition.
These movements (like broad jumps, vertical jumps, and even explosive skipping) are designed to increase speed and explosiveness while strengthening joints and muscles. They teach you to stretch muscle before contracting them.
In simpler words means to take it easy and to increase the weights gradually, during your training so that the body adapts and makes changes accordingly.
The rotation of the arm where the palm faces down. In case of the feet it is where the foot leans outward.
This highly effective training technique utilizes an upward, then downward sequence in weight, reps or sets to help you maximize your weightlifting goals. This involves increasing the weight upwards as you decrease the repetitions downwards.
Range of motion. Use a full range of motion when completing a rep.
The term static means lack of movement. And as this term implies, with static training you take a weight and hold it in a fixed position for several seconds.
Steady-state cardio refers to exercise where you aim to keep a set pace at a moderate intensity, like a long run or bike ride. Also known as LISS which stands Low Intensity Steady State cardio.
Do listed number of reps/sets for a move, resting up to one minute between sets; move on to next exercise.
Performing an exercise and immediately followed by another without rest in between.
Opposite of pronate. Rotation of the arm where the palm is facing up. In case of the feet it is where the foot leans inward.
Tabata is a popular high-intensity interval training protocol. Do each move for 20 seconds, then rest for 10 seconds, alternating between moves for eight round (four minutes).
Like a superset but with three moves, all working the same muscles.